Skip navigation

Task 7 - Writing your paper

This task is due for the fifth lesson, after completion of the research.

Nevertheless, students can consult it whenever they want.

ESO/M. Kornmesser. Nature volume 536 number 7617 announcing the discovery of Proxima Centauri (CC BY)

Write a scientific report

Why to write a scientific report or paper?

  • To make known your research.
  • To provide enough information so that other scientists can repeat, and therefore validate, your research.

Sections in a scientific report

The standard main parts for any scientific paper are:

1. Title.

2. Authors.

3. Abstract.

4. Introduction.

5. Materials and Methods.

6. Results.

7. Discussion.

8. Acknowledgments.

9. References (Literature cited).


Tips for a scientific language

Taken from: Columbia University - Writing a Scientific Research Article

How to write a scientific report

There is no single method to write a paper, but many people find that drafting it in this order works better:

a. Results

b. Discussion

c. Introduction

d. Materials & Methods

e. Abstract

f. Title

g. Acknowledgments

h. References

Adapted from: Colorado State University - Writing@CSU Guide - Writing the Scientific Papers

Tips for Results and Discussion

  • This is where you present the results you have got.
  • Use graphs and tables, but also WRITE a summary of your main findings.
  • Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; that goes in the Discussion.

  • Summarize your project results and use it to support your conclusion. Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed.
  • State whether your results support or contradict your hypothesis. Explain, if appropriate, the relationship between the independent and dependent variable.
  • Summarize and evaluate your experimental procedure, making comments about its success and effectiveness.
  • Suggest changes in the experimental procedure (or design) and/or possibilities for further study.

Taken from:

Colorado State University - Writing@CSU Guide - Writing the Scientific Papers

Science Buddies - Science Fair Projects - Project Conclusions

Tips for Introduction and Materials & Methods


It must include:

  • What is the topic of interest and why is it interesting?
  • A short summary of your background research - Relevant literature with its references.
  • The testable question you are trying to answer. End with a sentence stating your hypothesis and the prediction (if _____, then____) you have tested.

There should be enough information to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment: 

  • Define your variables, explaining how you will change your independent variable and how you will measure the impact that this change has on the dependent variable.
  • List your materials and the steps for your experiment.

Taken from: Colorado State University - Writing@CSU Guide - Writing the Scientific Papers

Tips for Abstract and Title


This is the summary of your article. It must have around 100 words, with five paragraphs:

  • Introduction. This is where you describe the purpose for doing your project.
  • Problem Statement. Identify the problem you solved, and the hypothesis you investigated.
  • Procedures. Don't go into detail about materials unless they were critical to your success. Do describe the most important variables if you have room.
  • Results. Be specific and use numbers to describe your results. Do not use vague terms like "most" or "some."
  • Conclusions. State what your science project contributes to the area you worked in. Did you meet your objectives?

The title should be limited and specific. Also, it must catch people's attention.

Taken from:

Colorado State University - Writing@CSU Guide - Writing the Scientific Papers

Science Buddies - Science Fair Projects - How to write a Science Fair Project Abstract

Tips for Acknowledgments and References


You can thank those who either helped with your experiment, or made other important contributions, such as commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.


1. In the text, cite the literatura in the appropriate places:

Scarlet (1990) thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus (Indigo and Mauve, 1994) and wombat (Magenta, et al., 1995).

2. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.

Indigo, A. C., and Mauve, B. E. 1994. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science 275, 1213-1214.
Magenta, S. T., Sepia, X., and Turquoise, U. 1995. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q., ed. New York: Columbia University Press. p 123-145.
Scarlet, S.L. 1990. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. cerevisae. Journal of Unusual Results 36, 26-31.

Taken from: Colorado State University - Writing a Scientific Research Article

Start your paper

Download this Paper Form.

Upload it to your Google Drive or in any other Cloud Storage site.

Send the teacher the link, with permission to edit.

This form will provide you with a tool to complete your paper.

Remember, you will have just one month to write your paper.

Start it and Good Luck!

Paper checklist

Here you will find the cheklist to use for assessing your work.

Biology and Geology assessment rubric.

Use it to check the progress of your work.

Give your speech

Finally, you will give a speech explaining your Project.

This speech will consist of a 2 minute homemade video.

Your explanation must contain:

  • A introduction where you describe the purporse for doing your project.
  • The description of the research problem, and your starting hypothesis.
  • A little description of the followed procedures.
  • A description of your results.
  • Your conclusions, pointing out if your starting hypothesis was correct.

You can use the abstract as a basis for the script of the video.

And here, you can find the video assessment rubric.